여기에 소개한 강연 텍스트는 “제2강, 배교, 무엇이 교회에 잘못되었는가?”<The Apostasy: "What Went Wrong with the Church?"> 및 "종교 개혁, 돌아가기"<The Protestant Reformation: "The Road Back">의 전문으로써 그리스도의 교회의 성격을 올바르게 밝혀주는 매우 중요한 내용입니다. 그리고 이 영어 텍스트는 조동호 목사가 녹음을 듣고 받아 적어 옮긴 것이므로 오류가 다수 있을 수 있음을 밝혀 둡니다. 잘못된 곳이 발견되면 즉시 연락 주시기 바랍니다.
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PART II THE APOSTASY (100-1517)
Ah but all is not the most exciting, but yet you folks last night were so attentive. And we hope that this series is being extremely informative and helpful. Just a quickly review we look at this theme, "The Church in the Bible and in History." Last evening we discussed together how it all began. We looked back to Pentecost 30 AD in Jerusalem, the establishment of the church there, and our efforts today to restore this church, the church in the New Testament after that ideal. And Last night we indicated the very term restoration implies that something's been lost. We used a couple of illustrations about the lost recipe which one we rediscovered that recipe, restored it. Why, we use the same ingredients, the same way, the same amount we have the same result as in the beginning. And so is the church. We can come back and read about the church in the New Testament and restore its teaching and preaching, the way we talked and practiced. Why, we have the same result today. We also used illustration about how to recognize the counterfeit. Rather than taking enormous time to study all the counterfeits, we concluded that if we just took the original that which was genuine and we could recognize all the earmarks that which was the genuine, automatically by contrast, we will recognize all that is counterfeit. So again our proposition is willing to go back to New Testament and to study the church revealed therein and to recognize all the earmarks that is genuine, what it talked, what it practiced and how practiced it. Why, automatically by contrast, we will recognize everything that is counterfeit.
And look the church that needed to be restored. We tried to see we could not find its characteristics. There were six characteristics that we considered together last night. First of all is creed; second is terms of admission; third names that were employed collectively and individually, fourthly ordinances that were observed; fifthly church polity or organization and government; and sixthly its discipline or rulebook. We discussed the unity that the early church enjoyed and how it made possible? Then we come now tonight in the second our series to the theme, "What went wrong with the church?"
INTRODUCTION: The Departure from the New Testament Norm
Definition - The falling away; the abandonment of principles of faith.
Foretold - Acts 20:28-31; 1 Timothy 4:1-3; 2 Timothy 4:1-4; 2 Thessalonians 2:3-7.
We're going to this evening cover the area of the apostasy from about the year 100 AD to the year 1517 AD. Historians refer to this period of time as the Dark Age or the medieval period of our world history. The reason for that being that during this period of time the Bible became both literally and figuratively a chained book, recalls, of course, that copies of the Bible had to be rigorously copied by hand. And this result was that was very rare and very costly. So the Bible was chained, literally chained, to prevent theft but also figuratively because the church began to teach that you could not understand your Bible without infallible interpretation and that infallible interpretation, of course, came through the church and through the representatives of priesthood. So is the Dark Age.
Now the departure from the New Testament norm should not have come as the surprise that should not surprise people as they review history denoted that it actually happened because it was predicted. If you turn with me the 20th chapter of the Book of Acts, this is the Apostle Paul's last meeting with the elders of that great church at Ephesus, beginning here with 28th verse, he says this to them, "Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Spirit hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood. For I know this, that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock. Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them. Therefore watch, and remember, that by the space of three years I ceased not to warn every one night and day with tears.”
The Apostle Paul also said the same thing over here to Timothy in the fourth chapter. Notice what we read here in the first three verses, "Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils; Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron; Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth.” Also here in the Second Timothy the fourth chapter we're going to take time to read that tonight because we read it last night. But you want to refer to that. Then also Paul writes to the Christians in Thessalonica in his second letter. Notice what he says here in the second chapter beginning with seventh verse, "For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only he who now letteth will let, until he be taken out of the way. And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming: Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders, And with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved.” And again I said last night concerning these references which I cited. This is not an exhaustive study. You want to go to your concordances and run references and find many other predictions concerning the time they would come when they will be falling away from the faith.
Now there was an extremely rapid growth as we noticed last night in the church recorded in the Book of Acts as long as the early Christians regarded their principles said and set forth in Ephesians the fourth chapter with regarded the faith of the platform for unity. We had read that together.
I. Doctrinal and moral apostasy.
Now we come together the tragic time of both doctrinal and moral apostasy that simply means the falling away or the abandonment of principles of faith.
A. Rise of the clergy (hierarchy - a body of rulers - rising in order, a system of church government.
Began the evidence, first of all, in the rise of the clergy system, the rise of a hierarchical church system, a body of rulers, rising in order, a system of church government.
B. scriptural - elders, pastors, bishops (synonymous - referring to same office).
Last night we reviewed the scriptural organization in the church. You had elders, pastors, bishops. Those terms you know interchangeably referring to same office and function.
1. Change in practice - ruling elder, extension of influence of one man over groups of churches (Diotrephes, cf. III John 9).
But then they came gradually to a change. In Third John the 9th verse, the Apostle John in that particular passage refers to a man by the name of Diotrephes. Do you recall what John said about that fellow? He said, He "loveth to have the preeminence" in the church. The passage of the time an elder or a bishop because he was more extroverted in his personality or because of his pure knowledge of God's Word began to refer to as a ruling elder or a ruling bishop. And because the city church was usually much larger and more influential because they were more strategically located geographically, then they began to exercise oversight over smaller outlined churches resulted in this one ruling bishop or elder ruled to begin to exercise oversight over these churches.
And this church structure became gradually more and more expanse until the last from among the ruling bishops in the eastern segment of the church. They're selecting one who presided over the churches in the east in Constantinople. The other area dominant influence in the west was in Rome from among the churches of the west. They're selecting the ruling bishop who presided over the churches in the west in Rome. They had the ruling bishop in Rome of the western churches, and the ruling bishop in Constantinople of the eastern churches.
2. Priests, “bishops,” archbishops, cardinals.
It gradually then began to be created new orders. For instance, now the term priest began to be adopted, priesthood established, and this religious hierarchy became more expanse. Then the term bishop began to be used as an order just higher than the priest, not the New Testament usage of the term bishop but in this new usage. Then above the bishops there were archbishops, then above the archbishops the cardinals, and eventually then finds a pope.
Now during all of this time of this expanse church structuring there was a great opposition to all of this. Very controversial issue it was considered a meddling oversight. It was 257 AD that vestments adopted from the Old Testament Hebrew priesthood began to be worn. They were first used by Stephen, the bishop of Rome. Then 290 AD orders were created such as Porters, Sextons, Readers, Subdeacons and Deacons.
1. Holy water (c. 117).
Let's look at now the historical development in more chronological order. The innovations began to infiltrate the church. The first mention of use of the holy water was in the year 117 AD attributed to Alexander I, the year 117. Now the reason he used it and subsequently was frightened of devil, to obtain grace, to prepare for sacraments, to cure barrenness, to multiply good or to procure health. These were some various reasons. There was rationalization for the use of holy water. But this practice was condemned by subsequent church Fathers as a pagan custom.
2. Lent (140).
The first mention of Lent is mentioned here in the year 140 AD. It was introduced not as fully development as we know today but it was first introduced by Telesphorus who was the bishop of Rome.
3. Infant baptism - first mentioned by Irenaeus (. 170).
Then you come to the first reference to infant baptism, first mentioned by Irenaeus about the year 170. And this time, however, immersion of infants was by immersion. And again was the exception not the rule very heeded and controversial issue in the church.
4. Purgatory (Origin - 230; Gregory - 593).
Now purgatory was never believed in the eastern part of the church. It was introduced by Origin in the year 230 AD. And he taught that everybody would have to pass through the fire even the devil but eventually all would be saved. Oh, this was roundly condemned by the general council of the church. But Gregory the Great in 593 AD said that the priests could pray for the dead if the family was willing to pay.
5. Clinical “baptism” - Novatian (c. 250).
Then you come to clinical baptism. Now in 250 this was the first really major departure. Man by the name of Novatian became desperately ill. He thought he's going to die. He was not a Christian. He wanted to be baptized. But it was physical impossibility they moved him. So they'd got permission from some leaders of the church to pour water over Novatian. They ended up pouring seven barrels of water over that fellow. It was almost equivalent to immersion. And it happened that he did not die. He got well. The leaders of the church insisted that Novatian be baptized but he refused. So gradually they came in the bore what it was referred to as "Clinical Baptism." Again it was extremely controversial and not universally accepted.
6. Conversion of Constantine (312) - State Religion.
Then you all recall your history with Constantine becoming the Emperor of Rome. We recall Constantine legendarily saw a vision in the sky which was attributed to his conversion. In his enthusiasm Constantine even had some of the troops marched down near stream and baptized without any other their conversion whatsoever. So gradually rather than a Christianizing the Roman they began to be a Romanization of Christianity. Constantine was also a shrewd politician. He saw the empire was rapidly disintegrating. So he decreed the Christianity should be made a state religion. He thought by this politic movie he could solidify the rapidly disintegrating empire.
7. Original sin - Augustine (4th Century).
Then we come to an influential figure in church history, one of the early church Fathers, Augustine. In the fourth century Augustine began to teach the doctrine of original sin. I'm sure you all heard that particular doctrine. This resulted he taught the doctrine of total hereditary depravity. He taught that the taint and the guilt were also the consequences of Adam's sin passed onto all men. When a baby was born, he was born in sin. He had the taint and the guilt of Adam's sin upon him. And that's another thing and again nationalized infant baptism. And it said if what Augustine was teaching is true and since the Bible teaches that the baptism is for the remission of sins, we'd better take our babies and baptize them. Again it's very controversial issue.
8. Council of Nicaea (325)
Then you come to an important date upon which you want to hang your head. 325 AD, this was the first major church council, the Council of Nicaea. And this was called into the existence primarily because of the intrusion of all these doctrinal aberration and innovations and practices. And it was this council they formulated the first human creed, referred to as Nicene Creed. And I think perhaps formulators of this creed were sincerely motivated. They thought they could draw a statement of faith which they cooperated in all the basic fundamental doctrines of the church that automatically excluded all heresy or false teaching. But they could hardly come to draw upon the Nicene Creed and many in the church protested and forcefully said that "Some of things you've cooperated in creed we consider heresy." Then began a Latin session and calling into session church councils. And each church council many times ended up anathematizing pronouncing curses upon preceding church councils and drawing up new creeds and left remedy in legitimate state in the preceding creeds. So was the church at last in what is referred to as Dark Age, the medieval period of our world history.
9. Celibacy of the priesthood (305; 314; 692; 1015; 1074; 1123).
Then we come to the celibacy of the priesthood, first introduced by the Council of Elvira in Spain in the year 305, also confirmed by the Council of Neo-Caesarea in 314. But the 6th General Council which was convened in 692 AD condemned this practice of celibacy of the priesthood. And again the Council in the year 1015, it was absolutely forbidden. But then in the year 1074 the Pope Gregory VII made the celibacy of the priesthood compulsory again. Then 1123, this was the time of the First Lateran Council. It was authoritatively enjoined. You see how many these practices. They were instituted and then condemned. And then they were reinstituted and then condemned. Until the last and finally they were authoritatively enjoined.
10. Praying for the dead (380).
Then we come to the praying for the dead. It began in the year 380 when Constantine died and they prayed for the soul, the body on behalf of the soul. Now this praying for the dead was not fully developed until the doctrine of purgatory was fully developed. And again it's not universally practiced.
11. Private confession (390).
Then we come to the private confession. Now private confession of sin was introduced in the year 390. Prior to this, there had been public confession of sin. But there had been such numerous public confessions of sin that it compelled them to even create new officer who was to scream at all these confessions first so that none of them would be too scandalous. But finally here in 390, public confessions were brought an end. Because of the results of one of these public confessions in Constantinople, there arose a scandal that completely set the whole city of Constantinople into an uproar. That's what they wanted private confession.
12. Title “pope” first used by bishop at Rome (400).
Now the title "pope" was first used by bishop at Rome in the year 400 that was the Council of Toledo.
13. Leo, bishop of Rome, declared supreme authority over Western churches (450). (Gregory VII - decreed only pope - 1073).
Then we come to Leo, the bishop of Rome. In the year 450 he declared himself as the supreme authority over the western churches. But Gregory VII then in the Council at Rome, this was the year 1073, decreed that he was the only pope. In here you have this title assumed for the first time exclusively by the bishop at Rome.
14. Invocation of saints (private - 470; publicly - 600).
Then you come to the invocation of the saints. First of all it was private. And it was initiated in the year 470 (438). And the body of Chrysostom was taken to Constantinople. The body of Chrysostom was taken to Constantinople. The emperor (Theodosius II) knelt before the body and prayed Chrysostom to forgive his parents who persecuted him. Then this superstition was rebuked by the Fathers of the church. Until the year 600, then invocation of the saints became a public invocation or praying to the saints. But even then that was not yet accepted as an official church doctrine.
15. The Eucharist (490).
Then you come to the establishment or the initiation of the Eucharist in the year 490. Now this was the time when it was introduced to taking of communion under one species, that is, the loaf. At this time the men of keys or empowered and they abhorred wine. And that's the reason excluded. But Leo and Gelasius who were bishops at Rome condemned this and ordered that "communion to be received entire as instituted by the Lord or not at all," they said.
16. Images (500; Council of Nicaea - 787 sanctioned).
Then you come to introduction of images in the year 500. And at this point of time they were just considered historic memorials. But even this was reproved by the Constantinople. And then finally Constantinople that was Eastern Church condemned this in the year 754. But Rome ignored this and they honored it in the year 769 and the year 789 at Council of Nicaea they sanctioned the use of images or icons in the worship.
17. Extreme Unction (528).
Then you come to the doctrine of extreme unction in the year 528. This was the time when they taught the anointing the sick of oil. And it came from the term in extremis or at the point of death. And Felix IV, the bishop at Rome, was one who introduced this practice of extreme unction anointing oil on the person in extremis at the point of death.
18. “Universal Bishop” - John patriarch of Constantinople (595).
Then the title, universal bishop, it's interesting to note what's happening. The tensions are growing between eastern and western segment of the church and becoming sharper and shaper. The term, universal bishop, was adopted by John the Patriarch of Constantinople in the year 595 AD. When he assumed this title, Gregory of Rome was shocked and he denounced this and he wrote, "Whoever calls himself universal bishop is the forerunner of Antichrist."
19. Mass in Latin (666; 1215).
Then you come to the use of Latin in the Mass. Now Vitalianus the bishop of Rome first introduced this and ordered the Mass should be read in Latin in the year 666. Something significant about the date, isn't it? But at that time it was not a binding decreed but in the year 1215 the Lateran Council relaxed the practice.
20. Church and State combined (728).
Then the year 728 is the date when church and state were combined. And we find now the church dominant in all your political and governmental activities.
21. Absolution (750).
Absolution. The Roman Catholic historian Flury says here, "The year 750 is the earliest incidence of absolution being granted to penitents after confession of sin."
22. Incense (790).
It was Pope Leo III who in the year 795 AD then first ordered the incense to be used in the service.
23. Tradition accepted (Fourth Council of Constantinople - 869).
And then was the Fourth Council of Constantinople in the year 869 said that tradition should be accepted. Now they did not accept oral tradition. They only accepted written tradition. And at this point of time even written tradition was not accepted that was being equal with the scriptures. It was not until the Council of Trent in the year 1546 that tradition was accepted that was being equally authoritative with the scriptures.
24. Canonization of saints (884; authorized - 1160).
Then you come to the year 884 when the canonization of the saints was first advised by Pope Adrian III, bishop of Rome. And then by the decree of Alexander III it was authorized in the year 1160 AD.
25. Absolution (1000).
Now the modern form of the term, "I Absolve Thee" came about in the year 1000. It cannot be traced than prior to this date, the modern form of absolution, "I Absolve Thee."
26. Transubstantiation (1000).
Then we come to the doctrine of transubstantiation. Now that's an awful. I'll never forget when I was a high school boy. And I had been taught a course of church history in Christian Service Camp and came back to give a report. I ran over there word about seven times and finally gave up. What it means actually is doctrine of transubstantiation that in the Mass twinkling in the bell is taught that the loaf and the cup become actual body and blood of Jesus Christ. If you go to a Roman Catholic sanctuary you will see a red light burning over the altar that means as it is said that the Host is actually present. The actual body of Christ is present.
27. First major split in Christendom (1054). Major issues, authority, celibacy, images, sprinkling. Result - Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches.
Now we come to another major date of Christendom upon which you want to hang your head again. The year 1054, this was the occasion of the first major split in Christendom. There were four issues now that caused it. And it should come to no surprise that we said it's been increasing tensions between Eastern Church Constantinople and western church Rome. The issues were these. Number one is the issue of authority. Thus the authority of church resided in the Patriarch in Constantinople or the authority in the church resided in the bishop of Rome. That was a hot issue in Roman Catholicism today. If you read your papers and magazines back to about a year ago on the College of Bishop Smith. The issue was, the main issue was authority in the church. And there has continually through this century been a struggle over how much authority should be resided in college or synod of bishops and how much authority should be allowed to reside in the papacy.
The second issue was the introduction of celibacy of the priesthood. Of course Eastern Church was saying our priests should be permitted to marry as they historically may have been. But the western segment of the church padded in itself pretty much after that practice of pagan Rome which in their temples had allegedly celibate priests and their vestal virgins. Now it comes along with counterpart of the celibate priests and the nuns. And by the way what is the hottest issue in the Roman Catholic Church today? It's the celibacy of the priesthood. Do you remember when the pope of Rome visited our country a little over a year ago? And he visited our twelve major cities? The major theme of every one of the major addresses was recruitment to the priesthood. And it will become a real problem. I was in attendance at a (?)EILE Foundation sponsored seminars in Indianapolis Indiana several years ago. And the seminaries from all over America were present. Two prestiges of Roman Catholic seminaries were present. And during one of sessions they announced that in preceding 10 years there had been a 67 percent declined in theological seminary education in America. And you hear and all the more guess from the audience from they made an announcement. In the last several years two Roman Catholic seminaries have been closed in Cincinnati Ohio due to the dearth of young men studying for the ministries. It's come such serious problem that they have been a debate as to whether or not to create a new order of priesthood which they were to grant permission to marry.
But the third issue was the introduction of icons or images. Again the eastern segment of the church was adamant, "No images or icons," but the western segment of the church settled in the Rome find in the easy accommodation and simply take the names of pagan deities from these images and transfer the names of Christian saints.
The fourth issue because of this split was the introduction of sprinkling for baptism. No way you can tell that in the eastern segment of the church, 'Greeks' that Greek word in the New Testament, 'baptizo,' any of derived form can't mean anything but to plunge or to dip or to immerse. But the western segment of the church settled in Rome find in easy accommodation not only for adult but infant to sprinkle. But even in the western segment of the church sprinkling was not accepted as a valid baptism until 300 years later. It was not until the Roman Catholic Council of Ravenna in 1311 AD that sprinkling or pouring was accepted as a valid baptism. So those were four issues: authority in the church, celibacy of the priesthood, introduction of icons and images, and introduction of sprinkling. And split the church write down the middle from standard term resulted in what we know today as the Eastern Orthodox Greek Catholic Church and the Western Roman Catholic churches.
28. Auricular confession - Fourth Vatican Council (1215).
Now we come on in our tragic chronologically what happened. Auricular confession, that auricular means in the ear. Auricular confession was initiated by the Fourth Vatican Council in the year 1215 AD. This was the first time it was authoritatively required under the pain of moral sin at least once a year. At least once a year you had to make auricular confession or you will be under the pain of moral sin.
29. Sprinkling (1311).
Then we've already indicated sprinkling became valid in the church in the year 1311. This was the Council of Ravenna.
30. Sale of indulgences - (1390; 1515).
Then we come to the sale of indulgences, another black spot in the history of the church. Now Pope Boniface IX was the first one who actually practiced selling indulgences in this year 1390. But the one which was the most familiar one became a more glaring incident was in 1515 when Pope Leo X. Because of his extravagances of the Vatican and because it struck out upon a huge hub of million enterprise. And building St. Peters in Rome soon ran out of money. The pope of Rome depleted. And his obsession was to complete that project, the construction of St. Peters. And he was trying to find some type of scheme or by that going to raise money to complete this project. So he counseled, what it was advisors, particularly man by the name of Tetzel. And they devised an idea that the selling of indulgences would be the best means to raise money. I assume you all know what the indulgence is. In other words, you would do so many penances as it's called or you would visit so many stations or you would read so many scriptures and prayers, correspondingly you receive so many indulgences. Perhaps you would reduce sins or shorten a term of purgatory. So if you that the pope had all these written up and then began to merchandise these indulgences all over the Roman Empire. So you had the price, you could go ahead and purchase indulgences. You could go ahead then and sin. And you didn't need worry about the consequence of that sin because you'd already assured forgiveness of that sin. And that insurance was on that scrap of paper what you have on your hand what you just purchased. On the morals the church began to sink that lost adit and in the church itself there was a violent protest against this repugnant practice of selling indulgences. And we will come to that a little later on our discussion.
31. People deprived of cup at Lord’s Supper (1414).
Then we find people deprived of cup at Lord’s Supper in the year 1414 AD. This was decreed by the Council of Constance.
32. Immaculate Conception (1439; 1457).
Then you come to the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. Now a lot of people misunderstand this doctrine. They think this is referring to Christ. This is not yet all. The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception has a deal with the Virgin Mary. Remember now Augustine's profound doctrine of original sin. Now this doctrine caused a problem because if the taint or the guilt of Adam's sin was passed on every baby born, born in sin, what's that going to do to Jesus Christ? So here is how they got around it: the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. And this, Mary, though conceived actually from the moment of conception, was declared free from original sin. And thus then her child Jesus was free from original sin. That's the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. Mary was conceived naturally but at the point of conception was declared free from the taint of original sin. That certainly circumvented and got around it that predicament caused by the doctrine of original sin. And by the way this was first of all decreed here in the year 1439. But it was in 1457 that the Council of Abignon confirmed this doctrine. And this is what they did. They said, "Excommunication is the penalty, if it is preached otherwise." That was decreed in 1457 the Council of Abignon.
33. Purgatory (1563). (Council of Trent - 18 years - 1545 - 1563 - passed on matters of doctrine, 15 decrees, 44 chapters, 113 canons and enforced these doctrines by 125 anathemas!)
Then you come to the doctrine of purgatory. Now all through the centuries, the doctrine of purgatory had been developing gradually. But in 1563 the doctrine was confirmed in the last session of the Council of Trent. Now let's come to the Council of Trent. This is the most significant of all the church councils, the Council of Trent. And the reason is significant; the reason is called in the session and lasted for 18 years was counteracting devastating impact of the Protestant Reformation. The Protestant Reformation had been sweeping Europe. And so the church called in the session the Council of Trent in 1545 and the last period of 1563. They passed on matters of doctrine with 15 decrees, 44 chapters, 113 canons and enforced these doctrines by 125 anathemas! Another word what the Council of Trent do, it brought together in one collection, all of the innovations and all of the superstitions that had been decreed by the councils and popes over the intervening 1400 years and confirmed them all by conciliar decrees and threatened by 125 anathemas if you do not abide by them.
By the way all these materials I am giving to you are not hearsay or somebody said. I spent about a week in the public library in downtown Cincinnati reading all the Catholic volumes much of this material comes from the Roman Catholic Encyclopedia. It's the fact that they stated historically for themselves of their own volumes and publications.
34. Papal infallibility - 1870 - Pope Pius IX.
Then we come to the doctrine of infallibility. In the year 1870 under pope Pius IX when the pope speaks ex cathedra or ex cathedra which means from the chair in official pronouncement on morals and doctrines is infallible. However, when the doctrine of papal infallibility was decreed, now get this. There were to be no decrees without conferring with the college or synod of bishops first. You see again this struggle here continuous struggle between college of bishops and the papacy.
As you will note, we covered all of the territory, apostasy is gradual. “In this enlightened and inquisitive age people wish to know the cause and the reason of things.” For this Cause, we have taken time tonight; we have traced out the origin of human traditions and ecclesiastical dogmas and superstition. Somebody said, “Apostasy is hardly perceptible at first, but it gathers momentum as it proceeds, and descends with increased rapidity until the final crash comes. Once float away from the fixed standard of New Testament teaching, and there is no telling where you will tie up, or how far out you will float without pilot or compass.”