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ȯ  ؽƮ(1/4)(The Church in the Bible and in History Spoken by Harvey Bream)
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ȯ Ư(The Church in the Bible and in History)

ڷ ŽóƼ ũõ б п ߴ Ϻ C. 긲 2(Harvey C. Bream, Jr.) 簡 1989 9 10Ϻ 13ϱ 4ȸ ļ ÷θ ÷ ġ 콺̽Ʈ ׸ ȸ ȯ Դϴ. Ͽ ° ٰ 뷮 ũ ۿ , Ϻ C. 긲 پ ġ Ȯϰ ȯ  ִ ȸ ҽϴ.

⿡ Ұ ؽƮ 4, 20 豳, ٸ ߸ ȸ<The 20th Century Apostasy: "Another Wrong Turn"> ν ׸ ȸ ùٸ ִ ſ ߿ Դϴ. ׸ ؽƮ ȣ 簡 ޾ ű ̹Ƿ ټ Ӵϴ. ߸ ߰ߵǸ ֽñ ٶϴ.

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ؽƮ : ũ ٿε Ͻø ˴ϴ. PDFԴϴ.



I. Definition - the falling away, the abandonment of principle or faith.

The title of our lecture series is "the Church in the Bible and in History." In our first lecture, we studied how it all began, how the church was established, where it was established. In Jerusalem in A.D. 30. We also considered in that lecture the six primary characteristics of the church in the New Testament which we endeavored to restore for today. In the second lecture we talked about what went wrong with the church. We looked at the apostasy that is the falling away from the New Testament norm or standard. Here we talked about what historian referred to as the Dark Age or the Mediaeval Period of world history. Then in the third lecture we talked about the road back, the Protestant Reformation, endeavored to reform the abuses of the church and how and why many of these movements came into existence. Then the fourth lecture dealt with a new beginning, a Restoration Movement, endeavored, on a part of various people and various denominations, to restore the church after the New Testament ideal and its doctrines, ordinances and life and the subsequent filling history of this movement. Now we come to our fifth lecture, a wrong turn, another wrong turn. It's the 20th century apostasy, one of the darkest chapters in all of church history. The definition of that word, Apostasy, again is simply the falling away or the abandonment of principles or faith.

II. scriptural warning - Acts 20:28-31; Romans 16:17, 18.

Now such apostasy had been predicted. In the 20th chapter of the Book of Acts, recalled the Apostle Paul in speaking to the elders of the great Ephesian Church had this to say beginning with 28th verse:

"Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood. For I know this, that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock. Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them. Therefore watch, and remember, that by the space of three years I ceased not to warn everyone night and day with tears.

Over here in writing to the Roman Christians, Apostle Paul in the 16th chapter in the 17th and 18th verses had this to say:

Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them. For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.

III. Backgrounds:

A. Formation of missionary societies.

Recall it to implement to spread of this New Testament plea at home and abroad. They had been a formation of the missionary societies.

1. American Christian Missionary Society - 1849.

The first was the American Christian Missionary Society started in 1849 in the convention in Cincinnati Ohio.

2. Christian Womens Board of Missions - 1874.

In 1874, the Christian Women's Board of Missions was established.

3. Foreign Christian Missionary Society - 1875.

The very next year in 1875 the Foreign Christian Missionary Society was established. And then in quick sequence there came other missionary agencies and societies such as the Board of Church Extension, National Benevolent Association, the Board of Ministerial Relief. But there began to be apparent a growing dissention over these various agencies or organizations.

B. Instrumental question - 1850.

In the compound of this confusion, the instrumental question arose in 1850. That is over the use or nonuse of the instrument in worship.

C. Formation of Campbell Institute - 1896. The new learning or knowledge - Rationalism (Modernism).

But now we come to a dramatic transition. It began with the formation what was called the Campbell Institute which was formed in 1896. Edward Scribner Ames, writing on the history of this Campbell Institute in Progress: Anniversary Volume (of the Campbell Institute on the Completion of Twenty Years of History) 1917 on pages 35 to 43 gives this interesting and significant background. Quote:

"In the autumn of 1892 five Disciples who were studying at Yale University began to talk of an organization of university trained men in the ministry and in the colleges of the Disciples of Christ.... In the three years which followed, most of these students continued their work at the University of Chicago in association with other likeminded Disciples. The Disciples' Divinity House was founded there in 1894. Its courses in the History of the Disciples and in the History of Doctrine among the Disciples gave opportunity to survey this history in the light of modern scholarship.... The Campbell Institute was organized at Springfield, Illinois, October 19, 1896, during the sessions of the national convention of the Disciples of Christ. There were fourteen charter members.... These men were drawn together by their common experience of having felt the impact of the larger world of culture upon their religious inheritance.... they had begun to realize that there was need for reinterpretation and for new methods of religious work...."

Continuing in this line the third of three purposes set forth for the Institute's formation and its significance. Listen. Quote:

"To encourage positive productive work with a view to making contributions of permanent value to the literature and thought of the Disciples of Christ."

Later on we will note the direction and form that this took. In its note in the Bulletin in 1906, the organization gave this conception of itself when it said. Quote:

"The Institute was the outgrowth of the consciousness of the new knowledge which has characterized the great universities in the past twenty-five years."

Here is in the illusion to Prussian Rationalism which had come to the shores of new world during the 18th century. Of course, the focal point of the attack of Rationalism was the educational institution of America. As you may be aware, almost all of the early colleges and universities in America were established by churches. And they were established to propagate and defend the Christian faith. Today those original charters in most these universities and colleges of their original constitutions would be almost unrecognizable.

Ellsworth Faris had a question and answer section concerning the Campbell Institute in the 1917 Progress Volume. He posted this as question number seven and gave the answer. Here was the question:

"What impelled them (that is Campbell Institute) to organize?" Is answer: "Many young men were being lost, or were in danger of being lost, to the ministry and educational work of the Disciples because higher education seemed to mean a break with the brotherhood."

Now what Ellsworth Faris was saying is this. So many of these young men who were studying for the ministry in these larger graduate schools such as Yale, Harvard, University of Chicago, who were being introduced to this Rationalism, were dropping out of the ministry, or too they were not wanted to be hypocritical by remaining in the movement whose principles that they no longer adhere to, or too because many of them were going into denominations for their ministries where they found it much more consistent with their new founded knowledge. And so their Campbell Institute was brought into existence with whole blind to try to rationalize this new knowledge, this new learning, this Rationalism, with principles of the restoration movement. Now how successful they have been we will see in our future documentation.

This new learning or knowledge in theological circles, first of all, referred to a modernism, then later on as liberal theology. And we find it here again referred to when they were many efforts to try to rationalize to get people to accept this new knowledge.

D. Separate U.S. Religious Census listings - 1906.

But before I come to that, I want to put in another thing here that transpired kind of attitude confusion. It's such an instrumental issue that arose in 1850 and a subsequent division that came as a result of the intrusion of this issue. But then this issue was primarily focused in the person of prominent non-instrumental preacher by the name of David Lipscomb. He approached the United States Religious Census Bureau and asked that these non-instrumental churches be listed separately as the Church of Christ. This was in 1906.

The same year several important leaders of Disciples of Christ then approached the United States Religious Census Bureau and asked that all the other Churches of Christ and Christian Churches be listed under the caption, the Disciples of Christ.

E. Centennial Convention, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania - 1909.

It was in 1909, then, three years after this, at the Centennial Convention in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania that that was a first indication publicly of the intrusion of this liberal theology into this Restoration Movement. My own parents were present at that particular convention. I can remember my mother in the days of my youth telling how that during this convention downtown in the street corners of Pittsburgh crowds numbering any that were from 50 to 500 would be standing there and singing grand old hymns of Zion. She said that it was thrilling. You know this movement was so harassed and greatly maligned. It was still the fastest growing religious movement of the North American Continent. But it was this convention that that was the first indication of infiltration of the liberal theology. Some of the key speakers began to refer to the myth of the virgin birth, the myth of the bodily resurrection of Jesus Christ. And one particular address (: "Progress and Achievements of a Hundred Years") delivered by Pittsburgh attorney by the name of Colonel Samuel Harden Church was so radical in his theology that in unprecedented fashion that huge convention audience began to hiss and boo. It was so radical that it addressed not even published among the subsequent addresses of that convention that would put into print.

F. Formation of United Christian Missionary Society - 1919.

It was shortly after that in 1911 Robert E. Elmore, who that time was the corresponding or recording secretary for the Executive Committee of the Foreign Christian Missionary Society, in correspondings with the missionaries which had been sent out by the Foreign Society overseas, discovered that they were practicing what was called open membership unborn unknown to the churches here in America.

Now open membership is the practice of receiving in the membership what is we refer to as pious unimmersed. And they were been accepted in the used as evangelists and elders and another leader in the churches. Brother Elmore asked the Society to reveal this fact to the brethren. But they refused. To enjoy his moral integrity he at last resigned from his position. And subsequently all these correspondences on these facts were published and the brethren were afire with this situation.

It was in 1919, then, again in Cincinnati Ohio that that was a form what was called the United Christian Missionary Society. This was comprised of the amalgamation of all the preceding six agencies which we before mentioned or cited. They're all brought into this one agency. Again my parents, I recalled, were present at this convention. They told when their vote was taken because of the extremely controversial issue. They said that the nays prevailed. However, the chair declared that the ayes had carried. At the end of that vote, finally red-haired preacher who's the minister of historic First Christian Church in Georgetown Kentucky stood to speak and he asked, "Now had we given birth to this baby, what shall we build for it, a cradle or a cage?" That unanimous question soon was born out in historical fact so that they rapidly began to proceed.

IV. Original principles in the Restoration Movement:

A. The Bible - Holy Spirit inspired, infallible - the authoritative Word of God - the only and all-sufficient rule of faith and practice (a Bible people; a people of the Book).

At this point in time, I want to here again interject. "What were those that all Christian Churches and Churches of Christ had to believe at this point in time?" First of all, they believed that the Bible was Holy Spirit inspired, infallible, the authoritative Word of God, the only and in all-sufficient rule of both faith as well as practice. That's the reason they were referred to as they, a Bible people or a people of the Book.

B. Jesus the Christ - the Messiah and Savior from sin, the only begotten Son of the living God - Holy Spirit conceived, virgin born.

Secondly, all of they believed that Jesus was the Christ, the Messiah, the Savior from sin, the only begotten Son of the living God, the Holy Spirit conceived, virgin born Son of God who died, was buried, was raised, began, ascended and his returning.

C. The restoration of the church after the New Testament pattern - in doctrine, ordinances, and life.

They all advocated the restoration of the church after the New Testament ideal in its doctrine, ordinances, and life.

D. The New Testament - the only practical basis of unity.

They all believed that the New Testament was the only practical basis of unity.

E. Human expedients not permitted to become tests of fellowship, as they were not of divine origin.

They also all believed that human expedients should never be allowed to become tests of fellowship, because they were not of divine origin.

F. Proceeding on this basis, at the turn of the century - fastest growing religious movement since Pentecost.

Proceeding on this basis at the turn of the century. This movement was the fastest growing upon the North American Continent. Now all Churches of Christ and Christian Churches believed all these foregoing things until the turn of this present century.

I. Infiltration of Rationalism (Infidelity).

Then began in the serious infiltration of Rationalism or infidelity and unbelief.

A. Admitted by R. E. Osborn - International Convention - 1958.

This was admitted by Ronald E. Osborn at the International Convention of the Disciples of Christ in 1958 (assembled in St. Louis). His address was entitled of "Future of the Disciples of Christ and Ecumenical Voyage." In that address he said this, referring doctrinal synopsis of Campbell, Milligan, McGarvey, ours(?) and Phillips. Quote:

"Today these voices sounded from another world, from the world before the impact the modern science in the popular mind, before biblical criticism and Form Criticism, before the passing of the frontier, before our error of massive institutions, before our development of the professional ministry, before the emergence of the ecumenical fellowship."

Then he makes a candid public confession of this digression when he says. Quote:

"Already by the turn of the 20th century the traditional formulation of our position has been shaken by the impact of the modern thought in general and the liberal theology in particular. But our men who studied great nondenominational graduate schools" (Here he's alluding such schools as Yale, Harvard, University of Chicago.) "made convincing reconstruction of the Disciple position in terms of liberalism. And through the early decades of this century we furnished important leadership both theological and administrative to the emerging ecumenical movement."

B. Views of educators and scholars. Published works of Panel of Scholars - The Renewal of Church - 1963.

It was in 1956 that the United Christian Missionary Society along with the Board of Higher Education of Disciple of Christ selected what they called a Panel of Scholars. This Panel of Scholars was commissioned to restudy the principle of Restoration Movement and to modify them what they needed modification. Seven years later in 1963. This Panel of Scholars had published a three volume set, called The Renewal of Church. And in this three set volume they revealed a confirmation of all that Ronald Osborn here affirmed in his address.

1. Repudiation of Bibles inspiration and infallibility.

First of all, in these works, these works, by the way, were comprised primarily of writings of these scholars that had been put into various publications at previous dates. First of all, in the series they repudiated the Bible's inspiration and infallibility. Note with me here what was said about that. Ralph G. Wilburn was dean of the College of the Bible (Lexington Theological Seminary) in Lexington Kentucky at this time. And he wrote, in "the Role of Tradition in the Experience of Jesus as Christ" that it was in the College of the Bible Quarterly (January 1959) on page 12, this. Quote:

"The impregnable rock of scriptures is not so impregnable anymore thanks to the science of biblical criticism."

In the same article he says this again. Quote:

"The infallible book of Old Protestantism is gone forever for critical thought for mind."

Then he also says this. Quote:

"In view of the conclusions reached by recent biblical criticism, theological integrity caused upon the Discipledom for more force to write abandonment of this false belief in the infallible book, a belief which was a great degree of obscure from the view of the fathers, the fallible historical character of the document of the New Testament."

This was found in "A Critique of the Restoration Principle" in Encounter in the summer of 1959 page 342.

2. Repudiation of Bibles representation of Jesus.

Also in this series of volume this Panel of Scholars repudiated the Bibles representation of Jesus Christ. Note with me in that regard what William Baird, the professor of New Testament at College of the Bible in Lexington Kentucky, said what he regarded to authority. Quote:

"Since the rise of Form Criticism, however, serious questions have been raised as to what can be known about the life of Jesus. The Gospels are not historical records, but compilation of small units of oral tradition. Many these units are doubtful historicity or the literary relationship as certainly construction of later editor. The quest for the historical Jesus, it seemed, let astray into a blind alley."

End of the quote. Found in "Christology As Sermon," the College of the Bible Quarterly (July 1958) page 17. Dean Willburn says practically the same thing and concludes. Quote:

"In short, the entire question as to whether the Bible, or the teachings of Jesus.. . can, in any sense, be regarded as an authority has become problematical. This belief, in the old orthodox sense, is no longer possible."

End of quote. Found in A Critique page 339.

Then concerning the struggle of the liberals to capture the school. Stephen J. Corey, one of the executives of the Society says. Quote:

"The outcome really turned the tide in our brotherhood for the educational institution. Today what the faculty of the College of the Bible stood for so barrenly had become mainly the conviction and the working principle of the faculty in all of our schools holding membership in the Board of Higher Education of the Disciples of Christ."

That's found page 55 and Fifty Years of Attack and Controversy: (The Consequences among Disciples of Christ).

3. Rejection of restoration and New Testament as churchs constitution.

Also we find it in this three volume, this Panel of Scholars, rejected the concept of restoration of the New Testament Church and rejected the concept of the New Testament as the church's constitution.

Again we find dean Osborn in his address I earlier alluded to, saying this. Quote:

"Our fathers that expressed this concern in the slogan: the restorationist primitive Christianity, its doctrine, its ordinances, and its truth were announcing clear that restorationism has been a misguided attempt at apostolicity."

4. Practice of open membership.

5. Rejection of undenominational status linked to ecumenical aspirations.

6. Elevating of human expedients to level of basic faith or doctrine. Cf. the 13 court cases and the allegations of Disciples.

it is assumption that every recorded practices in ancient church no matter how casual constituted part of ironclad pattern for all time. Event to say later this. Quote:

"As we respect our own functioning as a Christian denomination to areas of our lives as the Disciples of Christ are particular important ecumenical future."

These are brotherhood structure and theology because now you see also they begin to link this rejection of restoration with ecumenical aspiration. This is point out further in Osborn addressed and he admitted. Quote:

"It is wholesome that the Disciples are consciously working, and a more rational, more inner created ecclesiastical structure. We do well to recognize that such and to encourage every development, whereby each congregation through explicit statements in the constitution and bylaws and to practical performs of firm principle of commitment to the brotherhood program and to the responsible structure of cooperation."

Now why must all this be done? Dean Osborn tells us very clearly. Quote:

"Only thus do we have any affect to part in the ecumenical movement on membership in Councils of Churches through our convention and our participation in that work through our responsible agencies? Only thus is there any hope of our successful adventure into our possible virgin in the future and the losing of our life as Disciples to find a larger life within the United Church?"

Then again he says this. Quote:

"Ecclesiasticism is growing. The ecumenical movement is built on denomination. Union, proceeded by denominational merger, has increasingly the Disciples see themselves as a denomination and seek a more rational and effect the ecclesiastical institution through the ever restored restructure."

What was happening with this? These Disciples leaders, these liberal theologians, have become a part of the initial ecumenical movement here in our country. Early in 1906 formulated Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, which in turn 1950 became a part of the larger body known as National Council of Churches of Christ, which in 1948 had become a part of the World Council of Churches of Christ. Nonetheless, what was happening is this? These Disciples' leaders, when they attend these ecumenical concordat, rather frustrated because this concordat made upon denominational body and there respectable representative could speak officially and authoritatively for their entire denomination. But these Disciples' leaders found themselves no such position at all. Every Churches of Christ and Christian Churches were locally autonomic self-governing. They represent only themselves. They can not speak for the entire movement. And so began this process of restructuring. So they can become a bonafide denomination and eventually then as denomination participate in the ecumenical concordat and speak officially and authoritatively for the entire movement. This was the rationale behind all of this development.